# A Course in Classical Physics 2—Fluids and Thermodynamics by Alessandro Bettini

By Alessandro Bettini

This moment quantity covers the mechanics of fluids, the rules of thermodynamics and their purposes (without connection with the microscopic constitution of systems), and the microscopic interpretation of thermodynamics.

It is a part of a four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and light-weight, is designed to mirror the common syllabus throughout the first years of a calculus-based college physics application.

Throughout all 4 volumes, specific cognizance is paid to in-depth rationalization of conceptual elements, and to this finish the ancient roots of the important strategies are traced. Emphasis is additionally continuously put on the experimental foundation of the ideas, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. each time possible on the common point, thoughts correct to extra complicated classes in quantum mechanics and atomic, reliable country, nuclear, and particle physics are integrated. every one bankruptcy starts off with an creation that in short describes the topics to be mentioned and ends with a precis of the most effects. a few “Questions” are integrated to assist readers cost their point of understanding.

The textbook bargains a terrific source for physics scholars, academics and, final yet no longer least, all these looking a deeper realizing of the experimental fundamentals of physics.

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**Extra resources for A Course in Classical Physics 2—Fluids and Thermodynamics**

**Sample text**

In the turbulent flow, the velocity of the fluid elements varies in an irregular and chaotic way. In the description of this motion, we shall use a mean velocity, mediated over periods long enough to smooth the chaotic fluctuations. As opposed to that of the laminar flow, the description of the turbulent flow presents enormous mathematical difﬁculties, which cannot be handled with Fig. 12 Turbulent Flow. Reynolds Number 35 analytical methods, even in the simplest cases. The flow patterns in several relevant situations can be found with numerical computations using very powerful computers.

The z-axis is vertical upward. The ﬁrst section has area dS1 (which is inﬁnitesimal). Its height is z1. The pressure at that point is p1 and the fluid velocity is υ1. Similarly, the second section has area dS2; the height is z2, the pressure is p2 and the fluid velocity is υ2. Let us consider the mass of fluid laying between the two sections at the instant t and call it Δm. Soon after, at the instant t + dt, the mass Δm has moved and is now between the two sections A′A′ and B′B′. The distance between AA and A′A′ is obviously υ1dt, and the distance between BB and B′B′ is υ2dt.

Their unique combination with the right dimensions is qt2 =D. It is standard to divide it by two, and we shall use 12 qt2 =D (that is, the kinetic energy per unit mass divided by the tube diameter). We can conclude that Dp qt2 ¼ f ðReÞ 2D l ð1:49Þ where f is a dimensionless coefﬁcient, called the Darcy friction factor after Henry Darcy (1803–1858). The friction factor is a function of the unique dimensionless quantity of the problem, namely the Reynolds number. Written explicitly, the Darcy friction factor deﬁned by Eq.