By H. DeWayne Ashmead

Content material: Ch. 1. the basics of mineral meals -- ch. 2. The chemistry of chelation -- ch. three. The historical past of dietary chelates -- ch. four. the necessities for a nutritionally sensible chelate -- ch. five. the advance of analytical ways to turn out amino acid chelation -- ch. 6. Absorption of amino acid chelates from the alimentary canal -- ch. 7. The pathways for absorption of an amino acid chelate -- ch. eight. The absorption of amino acid chelates through energetic shipping -- ch. nine. The absorption of amino acid chelates by way of facilitated diffusion -- ch. 10. The destiny of amino acid chelates within the mucosal phone -- ch. eleven. The uptake of amino acid chelates into and out of the plasma -- ch. 12. Tissue metabolism of amino acid chelates -- ch. thirteen. a few metabolic responses of the physique to amino acid chelates -- ch. 14. Toxicity of amino acid chelates -- ch. 15. The absorption and metabolism of amino acid chelates

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The oxidation number of the metal ion can also affect the stability of the chelate. The higher the valency, the more stable the chelate, assuming there is a sufficient number of ligands to satisfy all of the charges on the ion and there is adequate space for all of the ligands to bond to the metal ion. Therefore, the size of the metal ion is important. Metal ions with smaller radii cannot bond to as many ligands as can larger cations. 27 As a general rule, as the atomic number of the metal increases, the stability of the resulting chelate also increases.

When the metal ion has a +2 charge, it still has an electron deficiency after chelating to a single ligand. Thus, to be satisfied, it can accept another electron from another carboxyl moiety of a second amino acid ligand such as another glycine molecule. 4 The chelation of a metal with two glycine molecules to form bisglycinate chelate. 5 The theoretical chelation of a metal ion by ligand composed of 12 amino acids. This chelate molecule is highly improbable because ligands with reactive moieties more than six atoms away are generally more likely to form metal complexes with separate metal ions on each reactive moiety than to chelate back to the original metal ion.

Bruni, G, and Fornara, J, Rend Atti R (Rome: Acad dei Lincei Roma) 13:26, 1904. 17. , Chelating Agents and Metal Chelates (New York: Academic Press) 1–48, 1964. 18. Kratzer, FH, and Vohra, P, Chelates in Nutrition (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) 1986. 19. Conrad, R, and Nakamoto, K, “Infrared spectra and normal coordinate analysis of metal glycine complexes,” J Chem Phys 42:2590–2598, 1965. 20. html) 2007. 21. Ashmead, SD, “The chemistry of ferrous bis-glycinate,” Arch Latino Am Nutr Suppl 51:7–11, 2001.

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