By S Cortassa; et al

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Gene expression and intracellular signalling pathways, the latter intertwined with the bottom layer (Fig. 6). Many proteins in living cells function primarily as transfer and information-processing units (Bray, 1995). g. , 1981). e. , 2000, 2001, for reviews). The latter emphasizes the multidimensional character of physiological responses in cells. The discovery of signaling molecules that interact with microtubules as well as the multiple effects on signaling pathways of drugs that destabilize or hyperstabilize microtubules, indicate that cytoskeleton polymers are likely to be critical to the spatial organization of signal transduction (Gundersen and Cook, 1999).

D) An allosteric model described in Goldbeter (1996). Thermodynamic efficiency was studied as a function of V, the rate of substrate input. For selected points (diamonds in A, C, D) in the oscillatory domain (dashed lines) the simulation of the temporal evolution of the system enabled the computation of the thermodynamic efficiency, η, in order to examine the energetic advantage of oscillatory dynamics in all models represented in A, C, D (see eqs. in Aon and Cortassa, 1997). In all figures, the plein and dashed lines represent stable and unstable steady states, respectively (Reproduced from Dynamic Biological Organization, 1997, pp.

The phenotypic consequences of gene inactivation depend on genetic background and pleiotropic effects (see Chapter 7). The latter implies on the one hand, that a gene knockout can result in different phenotypes when it performs in different genetic backgrounds (Miklos and Rubin, 1996), and on the other hand that specific environmental conditions may decide when the knockout of a certain gene may be lethal, or the effect of a mutation manifested. Most of the yeast genome encodes proteins that are synthesized during vegetative growth.

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