# Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory by M. Steven Shackley (auth.), M. Steven Shackley (eds.)

By M. Steven Shackley (auth.), M. Steven Shackley (eds.)

This quantity is the 3rd within the Advances in Archaeological and Museum technological know-how sequence subsidized via the Society for Archaeological Sciences (SAS). the aim of this sequence is to supply summaries of advances in numerous issues in ar chaeometry, archaeological technological know-how, environmental archaeology, protection expertise, and museum conservation. The SAS exists to inspire interdisciplinary collaboration among archaeologists and associates within the usual and actual sciences. SAS mem bers are drawn from many disciplinary fields. despite the fact that, all of them proportion a typical trust that actual technology suggestions and strategies represent a vital part of up to date archaeological box and laboratory reports. The sequence editors desire to thank the reviewers of every of the chapters during this quantity for his or her very good reviews and proposals. We additionally desire to thank Chriss jones for her necessary suggestions within the instruction of the texts for submission to the writer. xi Preface As famous within the introductory bankruptcy, this quantity is the second one significant evaluation of analysis growth within the learn of archaeological obsidian. An prior booklet, Advances in Obsidian Glass stories: Archaeological and Geochemical views, seemed in 1976. A comparability of the therapy of issues mirrored during this past paintings and that contained during this quantity not just highlights vital advances within the caliber and intensity of analysis on archaeological obsidian over greater than 1 / 4 of a century but additionally illustrates extra typically a few features of advancements within the archaeological technological know-how box in general.

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In PCA, one performs a transformation of the data using eigenvector methods to determine the direction and magnitude of maximum variance in hyperspace (Davis 1986). Computation of the eigenvectors is derived from either the variance-covariance or correlation matrix of the original variables. The first principal component (PC) is oriented in the direction of maximum variance in the data. The second PC lies in the direction of the maximum remaining variance, with the additional constraint that it must be orthogonal to the first PC.

If possible, specimens should be taken from the actual locations of prehistoric quarries rather than from road cuts or other sites that are the consequence of modern human activity. Additional specimens should be collected beyond those slated for analysis in order to maintain samples for future reference, exchange with other laboratories, and conduct possible hydration-rate experiments. If the amount of compositional variation in particular sources proves to be greater than anticipated or if artifact analyses indicate the existence of undiscovered sources, additional field surveys and collections should performed (Shackley 1988).

In their discussions of taxonomic methods, Cattell (1952) and Sneath and Sokal (1973) point out that multivariate factor analysis can be used in two ways. Associating variables over all specimens is called a Q-mode technique. On the other hand, associating specimens over all variables is called an R-mode technique. The emphasis of most PCAs has been the use of R-mode techniques with displays of variable scores plotted in R-space to reveal the contributions of individual variables. However, applications involving Q-mode techniques on compositional data are becoming more common (Neff et al.