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2001; Hupé, James, Payne, Lomber, Girard, & Bullier, 1998) have been reported since. qxd 9/8/2004 6:55 PM Page 19 VISUAL PERCEPTION I: BASIC PRINCIPLES levels are within the reach of the neuron doctrine (for a review, see Albright & Stoner, 2002). Other Gestalt phenomena In this section, we briefly review some other phenomena that have often received Gestaltist interpretations. As before, we shall argue that they are now often explained in terms of the extended measurement approach. Many of the well-known geometrical-optical illusions are actually demonstrations of the fact that the perceptual units are not necessarily direct replicas of the corresponding physical units.

The investigations with simple stimuli, as illustrated in the first section, reveal the initial building blocks of the visual system, but more complex interactions will not be visible simply because the stimuli do not activate these interactions. g. Polat & Sagi, 1994; for a review, see Polat, 1999). This paradigm revealed that the detection of a target patch is influenced by the presence of other patches. Sensitivity is increased maximally when the orientation of these ‘flankers’ is collinear with the orientation of the target patch.

G. aspect ratio and curvature). However, whether shape dimensions are encoded independently or not seems to be an aspect of visual processing that cannot be altered. qxd 9/8/2004 6:55 PM Page 17 VISUAL PERCEPTION I: BASIC PRINCIPLES BEYOND EARLY VISION: GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY In the preceding section, the ‘early-vision-asmeasurement’ approach was extended to deal with phenomena beyond the level of local blurred derivatives. Sensitivity to long-range dependences in natural images could be achieved by interactions between local filters or by the creation of new units that are tuned to more complex image features.

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