By Marshall J., Plumb R.A.

For complicated undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in atmospheric, oceanic, and weather technological know-how, surroundings, Ocean and weather Dynamics is an introductory textbook at the circulations of the ambience and ocean and their interplay, with an emphasis on worldwide scales. it is going to supply scholars an exceptional take hold of of what the ambience and oceans appear like at the large-scale and why they appear that method. The function of the oceans in weather and paleoclimate is usually mentioned. the mix of observations, concept and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments units this article aside by way of making it available to scholars with out previous education in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical point that's attractive for undergraduates andbeginning graduate scholars* offers an invaluable academic device via a mixture of observations andlaboratory demonstrations which are considered over the net* includes directions on the way to reproduce the easy yet informativelaboratory experiments* contains copious difficulties (with pattern solutions) to aid scholars study thematerial.

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GFD Lab II: Convection We can study convection in the laboratory using the apparatus shown in Fig. 6. 2. 6. (a) A sketch of the laboratory apparatus used to study convection. A stable stratification is set up in a 50 cm × 50 cm × 50 cm tank by slowly filling it up with water whose temperature is slowly increased with time. This is done using (1) a mixer, which mixes hot and cold water together, and (2) a diffuser, which floats on the top of the rising water and ensures that the warming water floats on the top without generating turbulence.

2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRESSURE AND DENSITY: HYDROSTATIC BALANCE Let us imagine that the atmospheric T profile is as observed, for example, in Fig. 1. What is the implied vertical distribution of pressure p and density ρ? If the atmosphere were at rest, or static, then pressure at any level would depend on the weight of the fluid above that level. This balance, which we now discuss in detail, is called hydrostatic balance. Consider Fig. 5, which depicts a vertical column of air of horizontal cross-sectional area δA and height δz.

10. Schematic of a radiative transfer model with many layers. 11. The radiative equilibrium profile of the atmosphere obtained by carrying out the calculation schematized in Fig. 10. The absorbers are H2 O, O3 , and CO2 . The effects of both terrestrial radiation and solar radiation are included. Note the discontinuity at the surface. Modified from Wells (1997). equilibrium profile, which is not observed in practice. (Recall from our analysis of Fig. ) The reason this discontinuity is produced in radiative equilibrium is that, although there is some absorption within the troposphere, both of solar and terrestrial radiation, most solar radiation is absorbed at the surface.

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