By John Kiernan MB ChB PhD DSc, Raj Rajakumar
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Extra info for Barr's The Human Nervous System: An Anatomical Viewpoint
Their sensitivity to this stimulus is enhanced by their location in the epidermis. Pacinian corpuscles also initiate action potentials when they are deformed; they are the most rapidly adapting receptors, so they have a special sensitivity to vibration. The rapid adaptation is attributed to the fluid between the many layers of the corpuscle; a sustained deformation causes a change of shape without mechanically disturbing the axon in the center. The Ruffini ending responds to mechanical stimuli that pull on the collagen fibers attached to its capsule, when pressure on or stretching of the skin causes movement in the subcutaneous tissue.
Experiments with peripheral nerves of animals show that all Schwann cells have the potential to make myelin sheaths and that each neuron determines whether the glial cells around its axon will or will not produce a myelin sheath. Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Axons a conjunction or connection, was introduced by Sherrington in 1897. An action potential can be propagated in either direction along the surface of an axon. The direction it follows under physiological conditions is determined by a consistent polarity at most synapses, where transmission is from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite or the perikaryon of another neuron.
22 Part I: Introduction and Neurohistology E M A FIGURE 2-8 Ultrastructure of the myelin sheath (M) in a peripheral nerve. The dense and less dense layers alternate, and the latter includes a thin intraperiod line. A, axoplasm; E, endoneurium, with collagen fibers. (Electron micrograph, ×107,500; courtesy of Dr. R. C. ) process of a single oligodendrocyte contributes to the myelination of a different axon (Fig. 2-9). Experiments with peripheral nerves of animals show that all Schwann cells have the potential to make myelin sheaths and that each neuron determines whether the glial cells around its axon will or will not produce a myelin sheath.