By Ashim K. Datta
Providing a starting place in warmth and mass shipping, this ebook covers engineering rules of warmth and mass move. the writer discusses organic content material, context, and parameter regimes and provides sensible functions for organic and biomedical engineering, business foodstuff processing, environmental keep an eye on, and waste administration. The booklet includes end-of-chapter difficulties and sections highlighting key techniques and demanding terminology It deals cross-references for simple entry to comparable parts and proper formulation, in addition to distinct examples of delivery phenomena, and outlines of actual strategies. It covers mechanisms of diffusion, capillarity, convection, and dispersion.
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Extra info for Biological and Bioenvironmental Heat and Mass Transfer (Food Science and Technology)
In a solid, translational and rotational motions are restricted. As the temperature of one area of a material increases, the molecules in that area vibrate more and bump into neighboring molecules. This contact between molecules imparts some of the vibrational motion of the first molecule to the second molecule, which then begins to vibrate to a greater extent. This trend continues throughout the material, spreading heat energy by the introduction of increased vibrational motion. In metals there are unbound electrons that translate freely in the material.
Since energy transfer takes place only when two bodies are not in equilibrium, the subject of energy transfer is sometimes described as non-equilibrium thermodynamics. As thermodynamics does not provide rate information, additional rate laws are defined in non-equilibrium thermodynamics to study the rates of energy transfer. The two rate laws that will be defined in this text are the Fourier’s law of energy diffusion (Chapter 2) and Fick’s law of mass diffusion (Chapter 10). 3 Temperature in Living Systems Most organisms live within a narrow temperature range, with a maximum temperature becoming more disastrous than a minimum temperature.
Plenum Press, New York. Incropera, F. P. P. Dewitt. 1996. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Wiley, New York. Kittel, C. and H. Kroemer. 1980. Thermal Physics. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. Rao, M. A. H. Rizvi. 1986. Engineering Properties of Foods. , New York. 7. 8 shows the temperature profile in a cooking pot at some point in time during cooking. Consider the food as solid (no bulk movement or convection). 45 W/m · K, calculate the heat flux graphically as a function of height and plot on the same figure.