By Xun Shen, Roel van Wijk

It is now good confirmed that each one dwelling structures emit a susceptible yet everlasting photon flux within the seen and ultraviolet variety. This biophoton emission is correlated with many, if now not all, organic and physiological services. There are symptoms of a hitherto-overlooked info channel in the dwelling method. Biophotons may possibly set off chemical reactivity in cells, development regulate, differentiation and intercellular verbal exchange, i.e. organic rhythms. the elemental experimental and theoretical framework in addition to the technical difficulties and the broad box of purposes within the biotechnical, biomedical engineering, engineering, drugs, pharmacology, environmental technology and simple technological know-how fields are awarded during this booklet. to advertise the conversation and mutual penetration among biophoton learn and photon expertise is among the vital pursuits for the foreign convention on Biophotons & Biophotonics 2003, and is built and offered in Biophotonics: Optical technological know-how and Engineering within the twenty first Century.

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In Chapter 13, Della Pelle and Thayumanavan present examples where functional arrays can be used for light-harvesting and drug delivery. Some arrays may be thought of as large two-dimensional surfaces that are roughened into the third by the attachment of ever smaller structures. Dendridic structures, also discussed in Chapter 13, are better conceptualized as polymers that grow from simple molecules into increasingly bifurcated three-dimensional arrays through the coupling of monomers with connectivity greater than two.

Examples of larger synthetic cages whose shapes resemble these unusual natural systems are presented later in this chapter. 1 Organic Cage Systems As intimated earlier, the range of purely organic cage and cage-like structures now synthesized is quite large. Individual systems of great structural diversity have been investigated across both the fully covalent and self-assembled categories. 37 Indeed, numerous organic cages and clefts of varying size have been synthesized over the past 40 years or so.

2 X-ray structure of the cationic metallosupramolecular cage [Fe4 L6 (FeCl4 )]5+ in which an [FeCl4 ]− anion occupies the center of the tetrahedron. 5 was shown to be selective for the singularly charged Fe(III) species, [FeCl4 ]− , over its doubly charged Fe(II) analog, [FeCl4 ]2− . 3. 3 X-ray structure of the neutral metallosupramolecular cage [Fe4 L6 (THF)4 ]5+ in which four tetrahydrofuran molecules occupy the cavity of the tetrahedron. 26 BIOINSPIRED SELF-ASSEMBLY I: SELF-ASSEMBLED STRUCTURES ˚ 3 volume observed for the smaller phenylene-spaced analog which with the 174 A included a single tetrahydrofuran molecule.

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